A distinct population of people are diagnosed with both Parkinson’s disease and fibromyalgia, a study in Israel found, noting they tend to be women with mental health issues, such as depression and anxiety, who rely on painkillers more than other Parkinson’s patients.
The study, “Fibromyalgia-Like Syndrome Associated with Parkinson’s Disease—A Cohort Study,” was published in the Journal of Clinical Medicine.
Fibromyalgia is a chronic condition characterized by widespread pain in various parts of the body. Parkinson’s and fibromyalgia share clinical features like muscle stiffness, unusual pelvic and rectal discomfort, poor sleep, fatigue, and depression. Nonetheless, only one case study to date has detailed a patient with both diseases, the researchers said.
“Since PD [Parkinson’s disease] and FM [fibromyalgia] are two relatively common disorders, it is not uncommon for a neurologist, rheumatologist, or a pain specialist to encounter a patient suffering from both illnesses,” they added.
Investigators at the Ben Gurion University sought to retrospectively characterize this specific group of patients, looking at their demographics, comorbidities, and medication use.
The team searched the Clalit Health Services database between the years 2000 and 2015 for people diagnosed with Parkinson’s and fibromyalgia. Researchers identified Parkinson’s patients through the application of a medication tracer algorithm, and those with fibromyalgia based on medical records.
During this 15-year period, 2,606 people (1,220 women and 1,386 men; mean age 67.9) were diagnosed with Parkinson’s and 60 (2.3%) of them also had fibromyalgia (a fibromyalgia-like syndrome associated with Parkinson’s disease, referred to as FLISPAD).
The majority of those with both the neurodegenerative and rheumatic disorders were women (88.3%) diagnosed at a mean age of 63.95 for Parkinson’s, while their age at fibromyalgia diagnosis varied from 51.68 to 76.22 years. A majority — 77% — also received a fibromyalgia diagnosis after that of Parkinson’s disease.
This particular patient population also had a higher prevalence of depression, anxiety, dementia, hypertension, and heart failure.
Compared to those with Parkinson’s, patients with both conditions used different analgesics (painkillers) at higher rates as well as more antidepressants.
“This FLISPAD subgroup of patients are mostly female, younger at PD diagnosis with a higher rate of cigarette smoking, anxiety, and depression,” the researchers wrote. And they “consume more analgesic drugs, both over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription medications, including opioids.”
A diagnosis of depression or use of antidepressants tended to come a mean 3.5 years before a fibromyalgia diagnosis.
Results also showed that Parkinson’s and fibromyalgia patients purchased 21.3% more anti-parkinsonian medications than those who did not have fibromyalgia. Although not significant, this finding achieved borderline statistical significance.
“These patients present a challenge for physicians as they use more analgesics, psychotropic medications, and tend to also use more APDs [anti-parkinsonian drugs] over time. More research is needed to determine the etiology and determinants of this syndrome, the needs of patients and course of treatment, both for PD [Parkinson’s disease] and FM [fibromyalgia] symptoms,” the researchers concluded.